If your site respond to urls that contain uppercase and lowercase characters (the same page responds to urls: yourdomain.com/my-Url, yourdomain.com/my-url), taking into account SEO parameters that is not good since the search engines are case-sensitive so you'd have more than one page indexed with the same content. A trick you can use is to convert all urls to lowercase, so:
One of the easiest and safest ways to find duplicate files on GNU / Linux files is using the tool fdupes, fdupes find duplicate files comparing the file sizes, making a check MD5 followed by a byte to byte comparison.
According to Wikipedia:
LibreOffice is a free office suite compatible with Microsoft Windows, Mac and GNU/Linux. It has a text processor (Writer), a spreadsheet (Calc), a presentations creator (Impress), a databases manager (Base), a vector graphics editor (Draw) , and an editor of mathematical formulas (Math).
To the previous definition, I would add that it is also compatible with BSD OS (FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD).
LibreOffice covers a wide range of office needs and therefore can replace proprietary suites such as: Microsoft Office.
sendEmail is a tool developed in Perl without dependencies of external modules, which allows you to send emails from the command line, it is easy to use and rich in features.
7-zip is a file compressor with a high ratio of compression. The main features are:
- High ratio of compression (LZMA algorithm)
- Compress / decompress: 7z, ZIP, GZIP, BZIP2 and TAR
- Unzip: ARJ, CAB, CHM, CPIO, DEB, DMG, HFS, ISO, LZH, LZMA, MSI, NSIS, RAR, RPM, UDF, WIM, XAR and Z
- Robust encryption: AES-256 for 7z and ZIP formats
- Allows to create self-extracting archives (SFX)
- Command line version
- Integration with File Roller, XArchiver and XArchive
MediaInfo is an utility that allows you to:
- Read various audio and video formats
- Show information in several formats: text, html, spreadsheet, hierarchical,…
- Customize the previous views
- Exporting information as text, csv, html…
The following is the information dumped by MediaInfo:
- General: title, author, director, album, size, …
- Video: codec, aspect, frame per second (fps), bitrate, width, height, …
- Audio: codec, channels, language, bitrate, …
- Text: subtitle language
MediaInfo supports following formats:
- Video: mkv, ogm, avi, divx, quicktime, mpeg-1, mpeg-2, mpeg-4, …
- Audio: ogg, mp3, wav, acc, m4a, …
- Subtitles: srt, ssa, ass, sami, …
MediaInfo can be used through its graphical interface, command line interface or integrated into an application using the API.
To install MediaInfo (cli) in Debian GNU/Linux type:
$ sudo apt-get install mediainfo
In order to obtain information from a file type:
$ mediainfo buffers_listed_and_hidden.ogv
General ID : 280403682 (0x10B69EE2) Complete name : buffers_listed_and_hidden.ogv Format : OGG File size : 4.61 MiB Duration : 3mn 28s Overall bit rate mode : Variable Overall bit rate : 186 Kbps Writing application : ffmpeg2theora-0.25 SOURCE_OSHASH : 3fd514e6b64347ca Video ID : 889190165 (0x34FFF715) Format : Theora Duration : 3mn 28s Bit rate : 89.5 Kbps Nominal bit rate : 297 Kbps Width : 640 pixels Height : 480 pixels Display aspect ratio : 4:3 Frame rate : 30.000 fps Compression mode : Lossy Bits/(Pixel*Frame) : 0.010 Stream size : 2.22 MiB (48%) Writing library : Xiph.Org libtheora 1.1 20090822 (Thusnelda) Audio ID : 1236641633 (0x49B5A761) Format : Vorbis Format settings, Floor : 1 Duration : 3mn 28s Bit rate mode : Variable Bit rate : 80.0 Kbps Channel(s) : 2 channels Sampling rate : 44.1 KHz Compression mode : Lossy Stream size : 1.99 MiB (43%) Writing library : libVorbis 20090709 (UTC 2009-07-09)
– man mediainfo
– MediaInfo project