Convert url to lower case using Apache HTTP

If your site respond to urls that contain uppercase and lowercase characters (the same page responds to urls:,, taking into account SEO parameters that is not good since the search engines are case-sensitive so you'd have more than one page indexed with the same content. A trick you can use is to convert all urls to lowercase, so:

Find duplicated files in GNU/Linux

One of the easiest and safest ways to find duplicate files on GNU / Linux files is using the tool fdupes, fdupes find duplicate files comparing the file sizes, making a check MD5 followed by a byte to byte comparison.

Install LibreOffice in Debian GNU/Linux

According to Wikipedia:

LibreOffice is a free office suite compatible with Microsoft Windows, Mac and GNU/Linux. It has a text processor (Writer), a spreadsheet (Calc), a presentations creator (Impress), a databases manager (Base), a vector graphics editor (Draw) , and an editor of mathematical formulas (Math).

To the previous definition, I would add that it is also compatible with BSD OS (FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD).

LibreOffice covers a wide range of office needs and therefore can replace proprietary suites such as: Microsoft Office.

7-Zip – An excellent archive compressor / decompressor

7-zip is a file compressor with a high ratio of compression. The main features are:

  • High ratio of compression (LZMA algorithm)
  • Compress / decompress: 7z, ZIP, GZIP, BZIP2 and TAR
  • Robust encryption: AES-256 for 7z and ZIP formats
  • Allows to create self-extracting archives (SFX)
  • Command line version
  • Integration with File Roller, XArchiver and XArchive
  • Multi-platform
  • Multi-language

MediaInfo – detailed information of an audio or video file


MediaInfo is an utility that allows you to:

  • Read various audio and video formats
  • Show information in several formats: text, html, spreadsheet, hierarchical,…
  • Customize the previous views
  • Exporting information as text, csv, html…

The following is the information dumped by MediaInfo:

  • General: title, author, director, album, size, …
  • Video: codec, aspect, frame per second (fps), bitrate, width, height, …
  • Audio: codec, channels, language, bitrate, …
  • Text: subtitle language

MediaInfo supports following formats:

  • Video: mkv, ogm, avi, divx, quicktime, mpeg-1, mpeg-2, mpeg-4, …
  • Audio: ogg, mp3, wav, acc, m4a, …
  • Subtitles: srt, ssa, ass, sami, …

MediaInfo can be used through its graphical interface, command line interface or integrated into an application using the API.

To install MediaInfo (cli) in Debian GNU/Linux type:
$ sudo apt-get install mediainfo
In order to obtain information from a file type:
$ mediainfo buffers_listed_and_hidden.ogv
ID                                       : 280403682 (0x10B69EE2)
Complete name                            : buffers_listed_and_hidden.ogv
Format                                   : OGG
File size                                : 4.61 MiB
Duration                                 : 3mn 28s
Overall bit rate mode                    : Variable
Overall bit rate                         : 186 Kbps
Writing application                      : ffmpeg2theora-0.25
SOURCE_OSHASH                            : 3fd514e6b64347ca

ID                                       : 889190165 (0x34FFF715)
Format                                   : Theora
Duration                                 : 3mn 28s
Bit rate                                 : 89.5 Kbps
Nominal bit rate                         : 297 Kbps
Width                                    : 640 pixels
Height                                   : 480 pixels
Display aspect ratio                     : 4:3
Frame rate                               : 30.000 fps
Compression mode                         : Lossy
Bits/(Pixel*Frame)                       : 0.010
Stream size                              : 2.22 MiB (48%)
Writing library                          : Xiph.Org libtheora 1.1 20090822 (Thusnelda)

ID                                       : 1236641633 (0x49B5A761)
Format                                   : Vorbis
Format settings, Floor                   : 1
Duration                                 : 3mn 28s
Bit rate mode                            : Variable
Bit rate                                 : 80.0 Kbps
Channel(s)                               : 2 channels
Sampling rate                            : 44.1 KHz
Compression mode                         : Lossy
Stream size                              : 1.99 MiB (43%)
Writing library                          : libVorbis 20090709 (UTC 2009-07-09)

Further reading

– man mediainfo
MediaInfo project